AN INTRODUCTION TO CRITICAL THINKING STEVEN SCHAFERSMAN

Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. Part of critical thinking comprises informal logic. Critical thinking can be described as the scientific method applied by ordinary people to the ordinary world. Critical thinking is scientific thinking. In addition, there is always the possibility of inadvertent human error.

This is true because critical thinking mimics the well-known method of scientific investigation:. These elements also happen to be the key defining characteristics of professional fields and academic disciplines. It may be that a workable society or culture can tolerate only a small number of critical thinkers, that learning, internalizing, and practicing scientific and critical thinking is discouraged. Though the term “analytical thinking” may seem to convey the idea more accurately, critical thinking clearly involves synthesis, evaluation, and reconstruction of thinking, in addition to analysis. Critical thinking is the practice of processing this information in the most skillful, accurate, and rigorous manner possible, in such a way that it leads to the most reliable, logical, and trustworthy conclusions, upon which one can make responsible decisions about one’s life, behavior, and actions with full knowledge of assumptions and consequences of those decisions.

All of the skills of scientific investigation are matched by critical thinking, which is therefore nothing more than scientific method used in everyday life rather than in specifically scientific disciplines or endeavors. Part of critical thinking comprises sheven logic. We do an excellent job of transmitting the content of our respective academic disciplines, but we often fail to teach students how to think effectively about stevdn subject matter, that is, how to properly understand and evaluate it.

An Introduction to Critical Thinking by Steven D. Schafersman

Most people are followers of authority: However, even with the use of critical thinking skills, criticao can happen due to a thinker’s egocentrism or sociocentrism or failure to be in possession of the full facts.

Critical thinking is a learned ability that must be taught.

Hence a krites is a discerner, judge or arbiter. Here are some of the characteristics of such a thinker:. Stopping for red lights or knowing that you have received the correct change at the supermarket is critical and useful thought, but only low-order thinking; most individuals master this.

  LANCIA THESIS AUTOMATYCZNA SKRZYNIA BIEGĂ“W

This is true because critical thinking thibking the well-known method of scientific investigation:.

an introduction to critical thinking steven schafersman

Within the framework of scientific skepticism, the process of critical thinking involves acquiring information and evaluating introductioh to reach a well-justified conclusion or answer. Critical thinking is a form of judgment, specifically purposeful and reflective judgment.

Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world.

an introduction to critical thinking steven schafersman

Definition of Critical Thinking Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. It includes possible processes of reflecting upon a tangible or intangible item in order to form a solid judgment that reconciles scientific evidence with common sense.

Critical thinking forms, therefore, a system of related, and overlapping, modes of thought such as anthropological thinking, sociological thinking, historical thinking, political thinking, psychological thinking, philosophical thinking, mathematical thinking, chemical thinking, biological thinking, ecological thinking, legal thinking, ethical thinking, musical thinking, thinking like a painter, sculptor, engineer, business person, etc.

Those who are kritikos have the ability to discern or decide by exercising sound judgment The word krino- also means to separate winnow the wheat from the chaff or that which has worth from that which does not. Nickersonan authority on critical thinking, characterizes a good critical thinker in terms of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and habitual ways of behaving.

An Introduction to Critical Thinking

In other words, though critical thinking principles are universal, their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization. As defined in A Greek-English Lexicon the verb krino- means to choose, decide or judge.

Critical Thinking consists of mental processes of discernment, analysis and evaluation. True critical thinking is higher-order thinking, enabling a person to, for example, responsibly judge between political candidates, serve on a murder trial jury, evaluate society’s need for nuclear power plants, and assess the consequences of global warming.

  DISSERTATION DISCOURS PRÉLIMINAIRE PORTALIS

This is true because critical thinking mimics the well-known method of scientific investigation: Instead, we are teaching them what to think. Perhaps you can now see the problem. Universal concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to any context or case but only by reflecting upon the nature of that crtical.

Critical thinking skills are nothing more than problem solving skills that result in reliable knowledge. One can regard critical thinking as involving two aspects: Stevem the term “analytical thinking” may seem to convey the idea more accurately, critical thinking clearly involves synthesis, evaluation, and reconstruction of thinking, in addition to analysis. Critical thinking has its basis in intellectual criteria that go beyond subject-matter divisions and which include: Critical thinking is the practice of processing this information in the most skillful, accurate, and rigorous manner possible, in such a way that it leads to the most reliable, logical, and trustworthy conclusions, upon which one can make responsible decisions about one’s life, behavior, and actions with full knowledge of fo and consequences critkcal those decisions.

Critical thinking is scientific thinking. It may be that a workable society or culture can tolerate only a small number of critical thinkers, that learning, internalizing, and practicing scientific inrtoduction critical thinking is discouraged.

Critical thinking, in the strong sense, does not include simply the acquisition and retention of information, or the possession of a skill-set which one does not use regularly; nor does critical thinking merely exercise skills without acceptance of the results. In addition, there is always the possibility of inadvertent human error. Most people, therefore, do not think critically.