The principle of natural justice can be excluded either expressly or by necessary implication, subject to the provisions of Article 14 and 21 of the Constitution. SIT approved certain scheme and applied to the Governor-in-Council for approval. Generally, this maxim includes two elements: Even God never denied the natural justice to the human beings. As a general principle of rationality in reaching conclusions in disputed matters, “Hear both sides” was treated as part of common wisdom by the ancient Greek dramatists. The second fundamental principle of natural justice is audi alteram partem, i.

No decision can be declared without hearing both the parties. Types of Writs In Indian Constitution The supreme court, and High courts have power to issue writs in the nature of habeas corpus , quo It is the first principle of the civilised jurisprudence that a person facing the charges must be given an opportunity to be heard, before any decision is taken against him. Therefore held, the appointment of Commissioner to inquire the merit of the scheme could result in suspicion that justice might not be done. But generally, a notice, in order to be adequate must contain following elements: The principles of natural justice have been developed by the courts, in order to secure fairness in the exercise of the powers by the administrative agencies. Collector of Customs [12]the business premises of a person were searched and certain watches were confiscated by the authority under Sea Customs Act.

The right of hearing become illusory if the party has no knowledge of allegations which he need to meet. In Jawaharlal Nehru University v.

Audi Alteram Partem

The Pratem Court held that there had been a denial of natural justice when the applicant was not allowed to call his essential witnesses to adduce evidence at the hearing and was therefore denied a reasonable opportunity of presenting his case. It is actually not regarded as an obligatory part of natural justice in all cases. Before the court, both the parties are equal and have an equal opportunity to represent them. In Firozhpur Constituency Parliamentary Election counting was been going on where in some segments counting were going on and in some it was over.


The notice must be adequate also. The Board unsatisfied with the decision of the Court approached the SC. It should be clear enough to give the party enough information of the case he has to meet. State of Jammu and Kashmir v. alteraj

Rebuttal can be done either orally or in written, provided that the statute does not provide otherwise. It has not evolved from the constitution but from mankind itself.

In the case of Ridge v.

(DOC) Audi Alteram Partem | Mahesh Yadav –

The principle of natural justice comes into force when no prejudice is caused to anyone in any administrative action. State of Tamilnaduthe apex court held that a properly expressed and authenticated order 10 can be challenged on the ground that condition precedent to the making of order has not been fulfilled or the principles of natural justice have not been observed.

Right to know the evidence against him. He claimed aprtem right to cross-examin the witnesses on the ground of natural justice. The adjudicatory authority does not know whether the accused is innocent or not.

This condition may be complied by the authority by providing written or oral hearing which is the discretion of the authority, unless the statue under which the action being taken by the authority provides otherwise. The civil courts, in India, are governed in the 12 matter of proceedings, through the Civil Procedure Code and the aaudi courts, by the Criminal Procedure Code as well as the Evidence Act.


Retrieved from ” https: Similarly, in Hira nath mishra v. All these circumstances create bias either in favour of, against a party to the dispute. J P Mitterthe court refused to quash the order of the President of India in respect of 23 the dispute relating to the age of a High Court judge. Minister of Health and in another case of Hira Nath v.

audi alteram partem essay

Founder August Horch had left his previous company, Motorwagenwerkeafter a dispute with partners and founded a new company on 16 Julyinitially essaj the August Horch Automobilwerke GmbH. The first element is the adjudicating authority should disclose all information, evidence or material which the authority wishes to use against the individual concerned in writing at its decision. The essaay is also the origin of the name of German carmaker Audi. Trespass to Land and Dispossession. Even where cross-examination of witnesses is allowed, the authority may refuse to permit unnecessary cross-examination of a witness.

The right to rebut adverse evidence presupposes that the person has been informed about the evidence against him. An enquiry committee was set up against whom the complaints were made. There are many cases where esway principle of natural justice is excluded, and no option is given to the party to speak.

audi alteram partem essay

If it is ambiguous or vague, it will not be treated as reasonable and proper notice. Thus notice is the starting point in the hearing. A pecuniary interest, however small, in a controversy disqualifies a person from acting as a judge.