These questions represent the ongoing debate surrounding homework for the past two decades. Since then, impassioned arguments for and against homework have continued to proliferate. Riehl pointed out the similarity between education research and medical research. For example, ensure that homework is at the appropriate level of difficulty. Student reflections on parent involvement with homework.
This figure describes the eight major research syntheses on the effects of homework published from to that provide the basis for the analysis in this article. Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Review of Educational Research, 76 1 , 1— Not to mention, the amount of homework completed had no effect on test scores. Students need to be able to complete the work at home without assistance because some students do not have an English-speaking parents or guardians to help them. Practice homework promotes retention and automaticity of the concept , skill, and content taught. The authors called for people to unite against homework and to lobby for an extended school day instead.
The Case For and Against Homework – Educational Leadership
Schools should strengthen their policies to ensure that teachers use homework properly. The Potential Harm Homework also has negative associations. Focusing on the amount of time students spend on homework, however, may miss the point. Students should be able to complete homework assignments independently with relatively high success rates, but they should still find the assignments challenging enough to be interesting. As educators, the amount, frequency, and the purpose should be considered prior to assigning homework.
The correlation between homework and student achievement is inconsistent. A comparison of medical research and education research. At the same time, a number of studies have provided growing evidence of the usefulness of homework when employed effectively.
A number of synthesis studies have been conducted on homework, spanning homwwork broad range of methodologies and levels of specificity see fig. Thus, 5 to 10 minutes per subject might be appropriate for 4th graders, whereas 30 to 60 minutes might be appropriate for college-bound high school students. Although teachers across the K—12 spectrum commonly assign homework, research has produced no clear-cut consensus on the benefits of gersus at the early elementary grade levels.
Another question regarding homework is the extent to which schools should involve parents. The effects of homework on learning: The authors focused particularly on the harm to economically disadvantaged students, who are unintentionally penalized because their environments often make it almost impossible to complete assignments at home. In this book and in a recent article in Phi Delta Kappan bhe became quite personal in his condemnation of researchers. These questions represent the ongoing debate surrounding homework for the past two decades.
Homework also serves other purposes not directly related to instruction. What are the advantages and disadvantages of homework? School-based home instruction and learning: Cooper and colleagues’ comparison of dooper with no homework indicates that the average student in a class in which appropriate homework was assigned would score 23 percentile points higher on tests of the knowledge addressed in that class than the average student in a class in which homework was not assigned.
Homework or No Homework
National Education Commission on Time and Learning Patricia helped develop and create many of the early resources and workshops designed by DataWORKS, and she is an expert in analysis of standards. Most research only supports homework for middle and high school students Cooper a; Kohn This figure describes the eight major research syntheses on the effects of homework published from to that provide the basis for the analysis in this article.
School, family, and community partnerships: However, his misunderstanding or misrepresentation of the research sends the inaccurate message that research does not support homework. Why do you assign homework?
For example, Cooper recommended on the basis of plus years of homework research that teachers should not comment on or grade every homework assignment. The Cooper synthesis a reported that for junior high school students, the benefits increased as time increased, up to 1 to 2 hours of homework a night, and then decreased. Assigning homework to primary age students can establish better study habits and skills for secondary education Bempechat, The frequency and duration of each assignment does not necessarily suggest a correlation between homework and student achievement.
Although homework has academic and non-academic advantages and disadvantages, the majority of studies conducted reveal inconclusive evidence that assigning homework increases student achievement. These investigations, taken cumulatively, can inform the work of practitioners who are building their own local knowledge bases on medical care. A significant proportion of the research on homework indicates that the positive effects of homework relate to the amount of homework that the student completes rather than the amount of time spent on homework or the amount of homework actually assigned.
Special Topic / The Case For and Against Homework
Homework should be used effectively! Cooper, Robinson, and Patall discovered a positive correlation between the amount of the homework students do and their achievement at the secondary level. Research-Based Homework Guidelines Research provides strong evidence that, when used appropriately, homfwork benefits student achievement.