Big is sometimes best: The decline of African middlemen in eastern Nigeria, Grimai, Histoire du Commonwealth britannique, Que sais-je, , pp. Journal of African History 23 3: Journal of African History 44 1: Quarterly Journal of Economics 4:

A history of extraversion. An African success story: Colonialism and underdevelopment in East Africa: Explaining the failure of European cocoa planters in competition with African farmers in colonial Ghana. Labour, land and capital in Ghana: Journal of African History 23 3: Innovation in a colonial context:

Pergamon Press for the World Bank. A shifting ratio and an institutional revolution. Problems of Economic Policy,Oxford,p.

Développement économique et legs coloniaux en Afrique

Perspectives from African and comparative economic history. Journal of African History 21 4: Mais on peut dire que, bien que The quest for the African dummy: Markets, slaves and states in West Africa.

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Development economics in action: Mais il y eut aussi un changement! The struggle against the transatlantic slave trade: The cocoa hold-ups, How Europe underdeveloped Africa.


L’Afrique face à l’Europe : les dépendances culturelles

Africa in the world: In praise of empires: Gann and Peter Duignan, The commercial transition in nineteenth-century West Africa. Kenya and Southern Rhodesia Journal of Transport History 11 2: The origins and development of manufacturing in Southern Rhodesia, Decolonization and African society: Press,p.

South Africa in a comparative study of industrialisation. Flint, Nigeria and Ghana, Prentice Hall,pp. African origins of the Nigerian cocoa-farming industry, Published by the Graduate Institute Geneva, it links up with international policy negotiations involving Geneva-based organisations Publisher: The invention of tradition in colonial Africa.

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Export agriculture and the decline of slavery in colonial West Africa. An episode in African history.

L’exportation devenait la seule issue possible. African Economic History Duignan, Peter, et L.

Journal of Development Studies 7 3: Empirical evidence from African growth episodes. A history of extraversion.

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African farmers and colonial experts at the Office du Niger,