But you’re still going to have cytosine and guanine pairing. Ribonucleic acid, let me write that down. This is what’s kind of doing the work of life. Which is good because you have 20 possible amino acids. And so transcription is a very similar conceputal idea, where we’re now going to construct a strand of RNA and specifically mRNA ’cause it’s going to take that information outside of the nucleus. And they kind of form these incredibly complex shapes and they have all of these functions.
A always pairs with T if we’re talking about DNA. Ribonucleic acid, let me write that down. So once again it might be part of a molecule that has not seven or eight base pairs, but might have 70 million base pairs. Or we would need to be able to replicate it. And so you can take half of each of this ladder, and then you can use it to construct the other half, and what you’ve essentially done is you’ve replicated the actual DNA. So for the RNA and in this case the mRNA that’s going to leave the nucleus A is going to pair with U, U for uracil, so uracil, that’s the base we’re talking about, let me write it down, uracil. Let me write that down.
And replication, you can imagine taking either splitting these two sides of the ladder, and actually let’s do that. So let me get my pen tool out now, let me deselect this, get the pen tool out.
And so let me copy and then let me paste. If you’re seeing this message, it means we’re having trouble loading external resources on our website. And what happens is each sequence of three, and you have to be very careful where it starts, and so this is in some ways a delicate and surprising, but at the same time surprisingly robust process, every three of these bases code for a specific amino acid.
So let me write this down, so now you’re gonna have adenine pairs not with thymine but uracil. And then finally I have a G.
DNA replication and RNA transcription and translation
So this might be part of a gene Actually whoops, let me make sure I’m using the right tool. Which is good because you have 20 possible amino acids. And so three bases together, so these bases right over here, these I guess you could say this three nra word or this three letter sequence, that’s called a codon.
And what happens in transcription, let’s go back to looking at one side of this DNA molecule. Impact of mutations on translation into amino acids.
And what we wanna do in this video is get a better appreciation for why it is suitable, and the mechanism by which it is the molecular basis for heredity. So you have this RNA. And one of the functions that RNA plays is to be that messenger, that messenger between a certain section of DNA and kind of what goes on outside of the nucleus, so that that can be translated into an actual protein.
And actually that warrants a little bit of a detour because you hear sometimes the words DNA and chromosome and gene used somewhat interchangeably, and they are clearly related, but it’s worth knowing what is what. And so this codon right over here with the ribosome, and we’ll talk more about how that happens, can code for amino acid 1. Same reason why we call the DNA nucleic acid.
And this is going to be the next codon. Alright, so from this side, from this left side, or at least what we are looking at as the left side, you can then construct another right side based on this information. Thymine pairs with adenine, so thymine, adenine.
And ddna now that thing can leave the nucleus, go attach to a ribosome, and we’ll talk more about that in future videos exactly how that’s happened, and then this code can be used to actually code for proteins. Well first of all it would need to be replicable.
Dna rna protein synthesis homework #2 dna replication – Google Docs
So adenine pairs with thymine just like that. And just like that I was able to construct a new worksheeet hand side using that left hand side. And genes could be anywhere from several thousand base pairs long, all the anwwers up into the millions. And how many possible codons do you have?
And we’re gonna focus on a conceptual level, I’m not gonna go into all of the, I guess you could say biochemical details. And they also, you might have more than one codon coding for the same amino acid.
So maybe I’ll do the new sugar phosphate backbone in yellow. As a cell divides, the two new cells would want to have the same genetic material. And that process is called translation. And this for the most part, and this is kind of how the information for life is stored.
So the tRNA, and I’m just gonna, it’s got some structure here, I’m not drawing it completely right, but it’s going to match right over here, where maybe it has an A, a U, and a G right over here and on this end it was attached to this amino acid, and so it matches them together.
And then there we go, a little bit of it is dropping below the video but I think that serves the purpose.