On a nearby hill, a fourth temple was dedicated to the third figure of the Heliopolitan Triad , Mercury Adon or Seimios [63]. On the basis of its similar name, several 19th-century Biblical archaeologists attempted to connect Baalbek to the ” Baalgad ” mentioned in the Hebrew Scripture ‘s Book of Joshua , [28] the Baalath listed among Solomon ‘s cities in the First Book of Kings , [29] [30] the Baal-hamon where he had a vineyard , [31] [4] and the “Plain of Aven” in Amos. More from Willow Osgood STL prosecution backs defense request to postpone trial STL defense pushes for trial delay, seeks more cooperation A noisy electoral debate, but is anyone listening? Coelesyria , [35] shows signs of almost continual habitation over the last 8— years. The tower, dating from the beginning of the 1st century A. The Crusaders were then massacred. World Heritage Sites in Lebanon.

The entrance through the lofty monumental gate and the view of its ornate interior constitute one of the loveliest sights of Baalbeck. The temple was begun in the last quarter of the 1rst century B. The remnants of the three apses of this basilica, originally oriented to the west, can still be seen in the upper part of the stairway of the Temple of Jupiter. Csa with significant continental influences. Colonies of Ancient Rome. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

The barbican was repaired and more turns added to its approach.

essay about baalbek castle

It is mentioned in Josephus[49] Pliny[50] Strabo[51] and Ptolemy [52] and on coins of nearly every emperor from Nerva to Gallienus. Under a white dome further towards town is the tomb of Kholat, daughter of Haalbek and granddaughter of Ali, who died in Baalbek while Husayn’s family was being transported as prisoners to Damascus. The Temple of Venus—also known as the Circular Temple or Nymphaeum [] —was added under Septimius Severus in the early 3rd century [ citation needed ] but destroyed under Constantinewho raised a basilica in its place.


Instead, its emir baxlbek homage and agreed to regular payments of tribute.

Travel & Tourism

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Baalbek. The Daily Star accepts no responsibility for the content of comment sincluding, without limitation, any error, omission or inaccuracy therein. It still possesses some of the best-preserved Roman ruins in Lebanon, including one of the largest temples of the empire. The rectangular Great Court to its west covers around 3 or 4 acres 1.

He was forced to relinquish it to Nur ad-Din in [18] after Ayyub had successfully intrigued against Abaq from his estates near Baalbek.

essay about baalbek castle

Construction of the so-called temple of Bacchus was also started about this time. This god was identified as a solar and growth deity. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Baalbek. Baalbek DistrictBaalbek-Hermel Governorate. The town became a battleground upon the rise of Christianity. Retrieved August 25, Aerial view of the Acropolis.

Places in Lebanon – Baalbak

It is located in one of the drier regions of the country, giving it an average of mm of precipitation compared with mm in coastal areas annually, overwhelmingly concentrated in the months from November to April. Upon Buri’s succession to Damascus on his father’s death inhe granted the area to his son Muhammad.

Wine and other drugs, such as opium, may have been used by the worshipers and it was the carvings of grapes and poppies on the main door jamb and some carved Bacchic scenes, which suggested the temple’s identification with Bacchus.

Cambridge University Press, Page John, the mosque re-uses granite and limestone columns. The 6th-century chronicles of John Malalas of Antiochwhich claimed Baalbek as a ” wonder of the world “, [62] credited most of the complex to the 2nd-century Antoninus Piusbut it is uncertain how reliable his account is on the point.



Local influences are seen in the planning and layout of the temples, as they vary from the classic Roman design. The Exedrae around the Great Court. But even in ruin the site attracted the admiration of visitors and its historical importance was recognized. The ruins were suitably fortified during the moslem conquests and Baalbak became the great fortified town at the head of the Beqaa Valley where it borders on to the valley of the Orontes river in Syria.

In Catholicismits titular see is distinguished as Heliopolis in Phoeniciafrom its former Roman province Phoenice.

Baalbek – City of the Sun, Lebanon Archeology Photos

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Only part of the staircase remains of a fourth temple dedicated to Mercury, on Kheikh Abdallah hill. Syria — Lebanon illustrated ed.

Constructed during the first half of the 2nd century A. Little is known about the site during this period, but there is evidence that in the course of the 1rst millennium B. The tower, dating from the beginning of the 1st century A. It is home to the Baalbek temple complex which includes two of the largest and grandest Roman temple ruins: Ccastle ornaments in the Temple of Jupiter [ citation needed ].