Regulatory limits are rarely in place or not properly implemented due to improper testing equipment, no monitoring and surveillance system in place, and poor management of grains and oilseeds Wild and Gong, ; Wu and Guclu, Among the Alternaria metabolites, Macrosporin was present in two of the samples, with a maximum value of 3. PLEASE make sure your project topic or related topic is found on this website and that you have preview the abstract or chapter one before making payment. Kunzig, Robert April References: This is the first documented evidence of fusaric acid contamination of Nigerian rice. However, the impact of the problem is higher in tropical and sub-tropical climatic regions of the world Suleiman et al. Mycotoxins may also be carcinogenic, teratogenic, tremorogenic, haemorrhagic, and immune- toxic, oestrogenic, effects dermatitis and nephrogenic to a lot of organisms Burger et al.

Likewise, DON found in rye, rice, oat, barley as well as in safflower seeds and mixed feeds Pestka et al. Aflatoxins are the most common and probably the most significant mycotoxin in terms of human and animal health risk Bluma and Etcheverry, Properties, Processing, and Nutritional Attributes. Newer Post Older Post Home. DON exposure has been linked to incidences of acute gastrointestinal diseases, kidney problems and immunosuppressive in animals Pestka et al. Retrieved 25 June

Ayo and Okeke have reported that kunu is rich in carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals but low in protein. Sterigmatocystin was occasionally reported to occur in green coffee beans, spices, nuts and beer EFSA The extraction, dilution and analysis were as described earlier.

(DOC) KENNYS ORIGINAL PROJECT 4 | kehinde ajoke –

Egwaikhide and Faremi, ; Edema et al. Sterigmatocystin is an intermediary metabolite of the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway, being the penultimate precursor of aflatoxin B1. Globally, over half of all sorghum is used for human consumption.


Mostly it is consumed chilled for thirst quenching and also taken when one is hungry. Its cheapness is owed to the ready availability of cereals and additives locally sourced as they grow throughout the savannah belt of west Africa Elmahood, Molecular structures of Fumonisin B1 and B2 Fumonisins have been found to produce a broad range of pathological effects in mammals Shephard et al. Three main types of ochratoxin are; A, B, and C Figure 4.

H7, Campylobacter jejuni, Vibrio cholerae, parasites, and viruses are more likely to contaminate foods most especially ready to eat food. Chemical compounds studied in this article. This is the first documented evidence of fusaric acid contamination of Nigerian rice. Field fungi do not compete well under normal and dry storage conditions, but may grow extensively in improperly preserved maize at high moisture Meronuck, The complete research work revisw cost you N and we will send the material to you within 24hours after confirming your payment.

Literature review on kunun zaki

Some of these foods that originates from plant includes non alcoholic beverages made mostly from cereal grains. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll zaaki you a reset link.

literature review on kunun zaki

By Damola O Adejoro. The drink is usually sold at the motor parks, school premises, market places and even litertaure during social gatherings. Kunzig, Robert April References: Moreover, ZEA has been known to causes depress serum testosterone, weights of testes, spermatogenesis, fetal reabsorption, aborted pregnancies, reduced litter sizes and low birth weights, in swine.

Literature review of kunu zaki

Mycotoxins contamination attracts worldwide attention due to the huge economic losses incurred and their impact on human, domestic animals and trade Wu, ; Chilaka, et al. S grain council 2. It contains fibre, thus helping to promote a healthy digestive system.


Contamination of maize to fungi can be categorized into two main classes: Finely reveiw grains or high-tannin grains are less palatable to cattle.

However, kunu zaki is the most commonly consumed. The warm and humidconditions provide a favorable environment for the growth of the molds and production of toxins both in field and storage Suleiman et al.

The data presented here corroborate a previous study which listed aflatoxins Reddy et al.

Literature review of kunu zaki

Furthermore, this is the first documented report of the occurrence of FB3 in Nigerian rice. Kojic acid was described to be produced by various Aspergillus strains isolated from Egyptian silages El-Shanawany et al. Sugar is also added to act as a sweetener.

literature review on kunun zaki

Colonies were selected randomly, bacteria cultures were characterized and identified using various morphological and biological test such as gram stain, spore stain, motility, catalase, coagulase, indole, MR —VP, urease, citrate, Oxidase and sugar fermentation. There are often consumed by children, people, whose religion restricts alcohol rrview anyone wishing to enjoy flavor drinks without alcohol, It is mostly consumed in the north for its thirst quenching properties Elmahmond et al.

The processed Kunu is usually packed for sale either in plastic bottles or in large containers and distributed under ambient temperature or cooled in a refrigerator where available.