The risk of enteric disease was increased further by the destruction of housing by the flows and the resultant overcrowding. Then, Nyramuragira erupted between 4 and 17 July when lava fountains on the western flank also produced glassy tephra, which blanketed an area of more than 30 km2 towards the western side, and killed large numbers of cattle grazing on the ash-covered grass. At the time of writing a multi-sectoral emergency plan is being developed. Emergency supplies of food BP5 – dried food and biscuits for three to five days had not been stockpiled before the eruption. The major epidemic-prone diseases cholera, measles, malaria and dysentery are endemic and were therefore expected to spread following the overcrowding and displacement.

The houses became occupied by as many as three families, which placed even greater loads on the existing latrines. Only a small amount of food had been stored at Gisenyi. The eruption should therefore have a significant effect in aggravating poverty in some social strata, at least. The risks of moving the population out of Goma to reduce the loss of life in an eruption have to be balanced against the risks to life from infectious disease, malnutrition and violence that are likely to accompany a mass exodus. The areas where displaced people were living required new distribution systems. We’ll assume you’re ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish.

Scientific studies are urgently needed to constrain the stduy volcanic hazard. Many earthquakes around were felt on the 19 January, with 10 large ones, some of which caused at least two houses to collapse. A scientific risk assessment will be needed to constrain the hazards from a lava eruption in Goma and an eruption within Lake Kivu, as well as other types of events.

Mount Nyiragongo eruption case study – Document in A Level and IB Geography

Episodic lava-lake filling at Nyiragongo began on 23 June, the first such activity since when the lake eruptiion refilled after the eruption. The economic activity which the programme revived, based on carpenters and builders, sent a buzz through the whole town and demonstrated clearly what a difference the reintroduction of wages made to the economy.


The consequences to health in terms of trauma and infections of these impacts were relatively small, especially in comparison to the potential hazards from the lava flows 6.

nyiragongo volcano eruption 2002 case study

The scientific monitoring and evaluation work will all be useless unless the lines of communication between the GVO scientists, foreign scientists and the appropriate officials, plus the local people, are all in etuption, and a satisfactory method of warning the people exists in the event of an impending future eruption. Six out of seven stool samples were positive for Ogawa-type cholera vibrios. The possible release and dispersion of gases from Lake Kivu need to be modelled for hazard mapping purposes.

Tietze has performed the most comprehensive study of the gas problem in Lake Kivu.

Volcanoes – Revision 3 – KS3 Geography – BBC Bitesize

The largest was Itig camp near the airport, containing around people, where the houses were made from recycled galvanized metal sheets collected from the lava flow debris Fig. The activity of the two volcanoes has not been comprehensively monitored by scientists before, though a telemeter seismic network installed by a Japanese team in during the refugee crisis functioned until it was destroyed in the refugee mass movement in November Some important findings on the vulnerability of the population have emerged which relate to the eruption occurring in a region already affected by a complex humanitarian emergency and these should be considered in emergency planning and preparedness.

The absence of civil institutions and democratically elected government means that there are none of the usual administrative structures by which governing bodies can make decisions on societal risk and long term planning on behalf of the Goma population. There was no immediate danger of starvation.

People left the upper flanks of the volcano and headed towards Goma to escape from the lava xtudy, which had made a swath through the remoter villages. Eventually, some of this was done. The health risk from contaminated food and drinking water in Goma is exacerbated by these local geological features:. When it reopened in January large aircraft could not be accommodated. We’ll assume you’re ok with this, but you can opt-out 200 you wish.


The international politics of aid in the occupied Palestinian territory. Two types of lava eruption are hypothesized by scientists. Case study of a Volcanic eruption: International humanitarian aid to the Palestinians.

nyiragongo volcano eruption 2002 case study

There is a plan to resettle 40, people from Goma at a new development near Lac Vert, not far from Sake this plan, which is going ahead anyway under local political direction, should be reviewed following a formal scientific risk assessment. Chlorination stations were rapidly reintroduced by the lakeside, the main source of water to Goma.

The volcano is therefore one of a long list of threats to life in Eastern Congo, including conflict and human rights abuses, a range of highly lethal infectious diseases endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, malnutrition, and the long-term mental and physical consequences of poverty. Measles immunization, vitamin A supplementation and water distribution were some of the measures instituted in each camp.

Scientific risk assessment incorporating uncertainty.

Human health and vulnerability in the Nyiragongo volcano crisis DR Congo Jun 2002

The risk of death and injury from the volcano has to be weighed against the risk from other causes of loss of life due to the vulnerability of the population to daily threats from violence, malnutrition and endemic infectious diseases. The main lava flow crossed part of the Goma airport runway and entered Lake Kivu, forming a new lava delta about m. A medical team at Gisenyi Hospital also worked through the eruption.

nyiragongo volcano eruption 2002 case study

Connect With ReliefWeb Receive news about us. Perceptions of the people were that the impact extended to heart attacks, miscarriages and other ailments.

This was a self-evacuation in the middle of an eruption, rather than a planned one on the basis of advice from the GVO.