Argument is distinguished from other linguistic means of getting people to do and to believe things. But whereas real examples typically call for the exercise of several strategies and the application of various concepts at once, those strategies and con- cepts have to be learned one at a time. An argument asserts its premises and its conclusion, but Mary is not arguing that the party is going to be a mess; she is only saying that it will be if Edna gets drunk presumably because she thinks Edna misbehaves when she drinks too much. We can cancel the implicature through tone of voice. In fact in any situation in which we have to make decisions, be they about our lives or the lives of others, there is no substi- tute for the ability to think logically and to detect errors in the thinking of others. The fastest way to travel then was by horse. Suppose you want to know the probability that the card you 7 have drawn from an ordinary, complete deck of playing cards is an ace.
Gary Kemp University of Glasgow. You know that the local zoo has no platypuses. Consider a further example: To get a better grasp of which types of generalisations may cause problems during the analysis and assessment of arguments, the main thing we need is to distinguish between hard and soft generalisations. C Sweden exports cars. If you are hoping to convince others that the person is wrong, you are most likely to succeed if you represent it as a bad one.
Nevertheless, if were to turn out that 15 of the garg students in the class cheated, the accuser might be surprised, but would not thereby be found to have spoken literally falsely.
P3 If the French attack, then the Prussians will be routed. It is the ultimate target. For instance, there is gart logical contradiction in supposing that a thing might count as a ram — that is, fulfil the demands of the primary connotation — yet lack some or, indeed, all of these characteristics. F P2 All baritones are Italians.
Critical Thinking : A Concise Guide
For example, consider this argument: P2 John is late. Reducing car journeys would reduce damage to the environment. On the other hand, consider B. This can be seen most easily in the case of a completely fictional 5 example, in tthinking the question of the truth-values of the premises cannot 6 even arise: Second, even when we do succeed in laying the argument out before us clearly, we find it hard to describe or explain what is wrong with it: They express the same relation between rain and clouds.
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Critical Thinking: A Concise Guide
A premise is left implicit. Here is a whole passage infected with vagueness of the kind we have in mind: A deductively 4 valid argument a valid argument for short is one whose premises 5 could not possibly be true without the conclusion being true also.
T 4 6 9 P1 Janet Baker thikning a baritone.
For example, in a court trial the jury is instructed to convict an alleged murderer if the prosecution has proved their guilt beyond reasonable doubt. The truth of the premises would not guarantee the truth of the conclusion. P2 If the Prime Minister does not do what the opinion polls say the people want, then he is arrogant. Thus we 9 can think of arguments as being arranged on a scale of conditional prob- ability, ranging from deductively valid to a complete lack of inductive 1 force see Figure 3.
That 6 is a bad argument; it gives you no reason to believe that there will not 7 be a third world war. Another way of expressing an argu- ment is to include the premises and conclusion in a single sentence with an indicator word separating them.
What the anti-generaliser is justi- 9 fiably worried about are generalisations about groups defined by race, 30 ethnicity, nationality, gender, class and sexuality. Now suppose 10 that someone attempts to persuade you that this proposition is true by 1 giving you an argument for it.
In such cases the premises may be entirely irrelevant to the conclusion. To ask other readers questions about Critical Thinkingplease sign up.
Critical Thinking : Gary Kemp :
I really think the Government should reconsider its policies on higher education. Through precise and accessible discussion this book equips students with the essential skills required to tell a good argument from a bwell one. P2 Suicide should not be legal. These are the crucial signs that the country is doing well. On the other hand, suppose that you find that the argument is invalid. P2 There is a blown resistor. Other editions – View all Critical Thinking: In particular, you have a reason for its being true.
Context is the best means of identifying premises in such cases.